双语|适合每一个人的衣服

汉服梦 2020-08-06 16:35:25


写在前面


这是3月4日《中国日报》发表的《适合每一个人的衣服》,该文由2001年APEC会议服饰讨论为导引,分别对山东“汉服女神”之称的汪天骄、深圳汉服荟、汉服购网站的老大刘胤宏、浙江西塘汉服文化周组委会的漫画作者陈苏玥进行了采访报道,最终体现出:汉服,是适合每一个人的衣服!


注意:由于录音歧音和时间久远的原因,部分细节出错,例如汪天骄本人应为24岁,非26岁,老汉网的域名也并非文中所列。错误之处已更正。


再次感谢本期报道的作者邢雯!



3月4日《中国日报》2个版面报道汉服复兴


clothing fit for a people

By Xing Wen | China Daily

Updated: 2018-03-03


▲Main illustration for the third Hanfu Cultural Festival in Xitang in 2015: 16 men in feiyufu,clothes worn by the imperial guards of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).




One Sunday afternoon a little more than 16 years ago, 17 men and 3 women who stood in a row at the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum were given a worldwide fanfare and it was as much what they were wearing as what they had been talking about that grabbed the world's attention.


People's Daily reported that the main element was "a satin jacket featuring Chinese-style cotton buttons and round flower patterns with peonies surrounding the four letters of APEC, and a white silk shirt". They came in six colors, scarlet, blue, olive green, brown, burgundy and black.


Those who wore these jackets on Oct 21, 2001 were the leaders of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum economies, holding theirannual meeting in China for the first time since its founding 12 years earlier.


It had become the custom for the leaders to don traditional clothes of the host country on the final day of the forum, and speculation about what form this would take had become a popular guessing game. However, in China that guessing took a serious turn, with earnest debate about what, in this context, the term "traditional Chinese" could possibly mean.

▲Han cultural activities have frequently been organized by hanfu aficionados in recent years to promote the traditional culture and clothes of Han people.


The result was the tangzhuang, a hybrid based on Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) clothing and other, more modern, elements. A little more than 20 years after China began to open up to the world, and just three weeks before it became a member of the World Trade Organization, the aim of the forum organizers was apparently to highlight not only the country's traditions but its modernity as well.


Jianhua Zhao, in his book The Chinese Fashion Industry: An Ethnographic Approach, says that the tangzhuang became extremely popular after the APEC meeting, but that in essence it was a fad that lasted for little more than a couple of years, even if the garment has become a set piece in the Chinese wardrobe.


However, the creation of the tangzhuang and the debate surrounding it appear to have been the genesis of a movement whose members show no sign of being content for their preferred garb to be mere space fillers in a wardrobe. These are the aficionados of traditional clothing based on that worn by the country's ethnic majority, the Han,5,000 years ago.


Though the term tangzhuang was deployed to describe the APEC jacket, there was no Chinese word in the early 2000s to denote clothing from the Han Dynasty, and the term eventually coined was hanfu (Han clothing). The irony is that what has led to a revival in this centuries-old style of clothing and that keeps the flame flickering is 21st century technology the internet and social networking.


▲Han cultural activities have frequently been organized by hanfu aficionados in recent years to promote the traditional culture and clothes of Han people. 


One aficionado of hanfu is Wang Tianjiao, 24, of Shandong province.


"Tieba is where I first learned about hanfu 11 years ago,"Wang says, referring to the community online forum Baidu Tieba.


"I was absolutely spellbound by this time-honored clothing."


She realized that few of her acquaintances had heard of hanfu, and all the information she got about it came from Baidu Tieba and the website hanchc.com, where a movement to rejuvenate hanfu germinated.


The dress on which contemporary hanfu clothing is based appeared as long as 5,000 years ago and prevailed through different dynasties in Chinese history until the Manchu established the Qing Dynasty in 1644. The Qing regime banned the wearing ofHan clothes, and for the masses the custom of dressing in such clothing gradually disappeared.


Four years after Wang came across the Baidu Tieba group, she attended a hair-pinning ceremony, a traditional rite that marks Hangirls' passage into adulthood, at the Jinan Fuxue Confucius Temple, built during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and restored asa tribute to Confucius in 2005.


Such activities have frequently been organized by hanfu aficionados in recent years to promote the traditional culture and clothes of Han people.




▲Han cultural activities have frequently been organized by hanfu aficionados in recent years to promote the traditional culture and clothes of Han people. 


Regional hanfu organizations have sprung up across the country. The annual Hanfu Cultural Festival held in the ancient scenic town of Xitang, Zhejiang province, draws more than 150,000 visitors. The event is streamed live by the online-broadcasting platform Yingke and in  November is said tohave attracted 167,000 viewers over four days.


Wang herself founded a hanfu club after enrolling at the University of Jinan in Shandong province in 2014. In preparation for its opening she and some friends donned quju, a type of hanfu with its right lapel  wrapped around the body, and perform-ed dance for the university's art festival. The background musicwas Chong Hui Han Tang ("Dating back to the Han and Tang dynasties"), the theme song sung by a singer called Sun Yi for the hanfu movement.


Wang says she encourages club members to wear  hanfu  on  traditional  Chinese festivals. For example, on every 12th of the second lunar month, or "flower festival" which, according to Chinese folklore, is the birthday of flowers, she holds ceremonie-s with her friends at Daming Lake in Jinan dressed, of course, in hanfu.


"I want to wear it in public so those who are curious about it or the traditional etiquette behind it can learn about it. The revival of hanfu is not about turning backthe clock or about cosplay. It's about passing down the culture of the largest ethnic group in China, which runs from way back to ancient times."


One aspect of passing on that message is making the most of  the  technology at her disposal, and Wang says she often takes photographs  when dressing in hanfu and posts them on Sina Weibo, China's answer to Twitter. She has nearly 70,000 followers there.


▲Han cultural activities have frequently been organized by hanfu aficionados in recent years to promote the traditional culture and clothes of Han people. 


A pioneer in promoting hanfu on the internet was the website hanfuhui.cn, which Liu Yinhong, 27, set up four years ago and is said to now have more than 200,000 registered users.


Liu, of Shenzhen, was well placed to make the marriage between hanfu and new technology work, having earlier been a programmerfor a software developing and having coded Web pages in his spare time.


"At that time, Tieba was the largest online community for those who love hanfu, and there was no website for it. I wanted to design a platform on which tongpao (a nickname for hanfu lovers) could share pictures, organize online activities and post articles, all about hanfu."


The site soon branched out into an online discussion board and shopping guide for all things hanfu. About 80 percent of the users are aged 18 to 28, Liu says.


"The term hanfu extends beyond clothes, covering other cultural treasures such as tea art, archery and the zither."


There are of course moretraditional ways of propagating the hanfu  lifestyle, such as on paper.


▲Chen Suyue (right) at the festival.


Chen Suyue, in a comic book called Jiao Ni Xue Guiju ("Teach yourself social etiquette"), has characters dressed in hanfu discuss in a humorous way how to behave appropriately on certain occasions, especially by adopting traditional social niceties that most people are unaware of.


Weaving culture and clothing into these stories makes them more interesting for people of different ages, Chen says.


Chen says she started working with the third Hanfu Cultural Festival in Xitang in 2015 and needed to learn about the standard shapes and structures of Han attire.

"I thought designing and painting the cartoon posters for the festival would be a synch, but the organizers saw things completely differently."

Just how difficult her job was became clear to her when she prepared the main illustration for the festival: 16 men in feiyufu, clothes worn by the imperial guards of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

"There was so much detailed stuff I had to learn. The hats, the collars, the patterns. … I revised them again and again based on instructions from three hanfu experts."

Chen says the organizers' and experts' scrupulousness about every detail of hanfu impressed her, and she put hours into researching hanfu and then putting it to practical effect.

"I used to care only about whether the piece fitted me well or not. I couldn't name its type and didn't know anything about its cultural background.Three years of working with hanfu has turned me from a  hanfu  layperson into a real tongpao."

She is now a member of the organizing committee of the hanfu cultural festival and says it is a great opportunity to bring greater cohesion to the tongpao group nationwide.

▲The Hanfu Cultural Festival held in the ancient scenic town of Xitang, Zhejiang province 

"I have really been encouraged to see so many people who share my passion get together to dress in hanfu. Some tongpao traveled thousands of kilometers to take part. Some came with their parents and children and some worked as volunteers day and night, all because of the hanfu and its glamour."

Sometimes when Chen travels she wears her hanfu attire, and once when she went to Japan, some of the locals mistook her garb for Korean traditional clothing, she says.

"In my view, hanfu should be developed into a Chinese cultural symbol that can be given currency worldwide."

原文链接:http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201803/03/WS5a99f385a3106e7dcc13f482_1.html

本篇大意总结(非直译)


适合每一个人的衣服



2015年第三届西塘汉服文化周的主要插图:

16位身着明朝(1368-1644)皇室卫士穿戴的飞鱼服的男子。


在16年前的一个星期天下午,17名男性和3名女性在上海科技博物馆前排成一行,受到了来自全世界的追捧,正是他们所穿的衣服和他们所谈论的东西引起了全世界的关注。

据《人民日报》报道,主要元素是“一件以中式棉质纽扣为特色的缎子夹克和一件围绕APEC四个字母周围点缀着牡丹的圆形图案的白色丝绸衬衫。” 他们有六种颜色,猩红色,蓝色,橄榄绿色,棕色,酒红色和黑色。

那些在2001年10月21日穿着这些夹克的人是亚太经济合作论坛经济体的领导人,他们自12年前成立以来首次在中国举行年会。

在论坛的最后一天,各国领导人都习惯穿东道国的传统服装,关于这将采取何种形式的猜测已成为一种流行的猜谜游戏。然而,在中国,这种猜测发生了严重的转变,人们就“中国传统”一词在这里可能意味着什么展开了激烈的辩论。

近年来汉族爱好者经常组织汉族的文化活动来推广汉族的传统文化和服饰。


其结果就是唐装,一种基于清代(1644-1911)服装和其他更现代的元素的混合物。在中国开始向世界开放的20多年之后,也就是在它成为世界贸易组织成员之前的三个星期,论坛组织者的目的显然是不仅强调该国的传统,还要强调其现代化。

Jianhua Zhao在他的英文著作《The Chinese Fashion Industry: An Ethnographic Approach中说:在APEC会议后,唐装得非常受欢迎,但实质上,这是一种持续了几年的时尚,即使它已经成为中国衣橱里的一件衣服。

然而,唐装的创造和围绕唐装的争论似乎是一场运动的起源,其成员没有表现出将他们首选的外衣仅仅当作衣柜中的空间填充物的内容。这些都是传统服装的爱好者,他们的传统服装是以这个国家大多数民族——汉族人5000年前的服装为基础的。

虽然唐装这个词被用来形容APEC外套,但在21世纪初,没有汉语单词来表示汉代的服装,而这个词最终被创造出来的是汉服。具有讽刺意味的是,导致这种数百年历史的服装风格复兴的是21世纪的科技互联网和社交网络。

近年来汉族爱好者经常组织汉族的文化活动来推广汉族的传统文化和服饰。


汪天骄,24岁,一位来自山东省的汉服爱好者。

“ 贴吧是我11年前第一次了解到汉服的地方,”汪说,她指的是社区在线论坛百度贴吧。

“我完全被这个历史悠久的服装迷住了。”

她意识到,她的熟人中很少有人听说过汉服,她得到的关于它的所有信息都来自百度贴吧和汉网,在那里,复兴汉服的运动开始了。

现代汉服基于的服装是在五千年前出现的,流行于中国历史上的各个朝代,直到1644年满清入关。清朝禁止穿汉族服装,对广大群众来说,穿汉族服装的习俗逐渐消失。

在汪遇到百度贴吧四年之后,她在宋代(960-1279年)修建于2005年恢复的济南府学文庙参加了一场传统仪式,一种标志着汉族女孩成年的传统仪式。

近年来,汉服爱好者经常组织这种活动来推广弘扬汉族传统文化和服饰。



近年来汉族爱好者经常组织汉族的文化活动来推广汉族的传统文化和服饰。


全国各地都涌现出了区域性的汉服组织。每年一度的汉服文化周在浙江西塘古镇举行,吸引了超过15万游客参观。该活动由映客在线广播平台进行现场直播,据说在11月的四天里吸引了16.7万名观众。

汪本人在2014年就读山东济南大学后,创办了一家汉服协会。在为开幕做准备的过程中,她和一些朋友穿上了交领汉服,为大学的艺术节表演舞蹈。背景音乐是《重回汉唐》,“我愿重回汉唐”,这是一位名叫孙异的歌手为汉服运动演唱的主题曲。

汪说,她鼓励协会成员在中国传统节日里穿上汉服。例如,每逢夏历二月十二,也就是中国民间传说中的“花朝节”,她都会和她的朋友们在济南的大明湖举行庆祝仪式,当然,她还是身着一袭汉服。

她说:“我想在公共场合穿这件衣服,这样那些对它或它背后的传统礼仪感兴趣的人就能了解它。汉服的复兴不是复古,亦不是角色扮演。这是关于传承中国最大民族的文化,这种文化,可以追溯到古代。

传递这一信息的一个方面是充分利用所掌握的技术,汪说,她经常在穿着汉服时拍照,并把照片传到新浪微博上或者中国说法的推特软件上。她在那里有近7万名追随者。

近年来汉族爱好者经常组织汉族的文化活动来推广汉族的传统文化和服饰。


在网络上推广汉服的先驱是汉服荟网站,这是27岁的刘胤宏四年前建立的网站,据说现在已有超过20万的注册用户。

来自深圳的刘先生在把汉服和新技术结合起来方面处于优势地位,他早些时候曾是一名软件开发程序员,业余时间也有编码网页。

"当时,贴吧是汉服爱好者最大的在线社区,并没有网站。我想设计一个平台,在上面同袍(汉服爱好者的昵称)可以分享关于汉服的图片,组织在线活动和发表文章。

这个网站很快就发展成为一个在线讨论区和汉服购物指南。刘说,大约80%的用户年龄在18至28岁之间。


“ 汉服这个词,超越了衣服,涵盖了茶艺,射箭和古筝等其他文化瑰宝。”


当然还有更传统的方法来传播汉服生活方式,比如在纸上。


陈苏玥(右边)在西塘汉服文化周上。


陈苏玥在一本叫《教你学规矩》的漫画书中,让穿着汉服的角色幽默地讨论如何在特定场合举止得体,特别是采用大多数人都不知道的传统社交礼仪。

陈说,将文化和服装编织到这些故事中,会让不同年龄的人更感兴趣。

陈说,2015年她开始在西塘参加第三届汉服文化周,她需要了解汉服的标准形制。

“我本以为设计和绘画节日的卡通海报是一种同步,但组织者的看法完全不同。”

当她为这个节日准备主要的插图时,她的工作有多困难就变得很清楚了:16个身穿明朝皇室卫队穿的飞鱼服。

"有太多的细节我必须学习。包括帽子,衣领,图案.....我根据三位汉服专家的指导,一次又一次地修改。

陈说,组织者和专家们对汉服的每一个细节都小心翼翼,给她留下了深刻印象,她花了几个小时研究汉服,然后把它付诸实践。

"我过去只关心这件衣服是否合身。我并不知道它的形制,也不知道它的文化历史。与汉服的三年合作让我从一个汉服门外汉变成了一个真正的同袍”。

她现在是汉服文化周组委会的成员,她说,这是一个很好的机会,可以使全国的同袍组织拥有更大的凝聚力。

汉服文化周在浙江西塘古镇风景区举行。


“看到有这么多有着共同爱好的人聚在一起穿汉服,我真的很受鼓舞。一些同袍旅行了几千里去参加活动,一些人带着父母和孩子来到这里,一些人日夜做着志愿者,这都是因为汉服及她的魅力。

她说,有时外出旅行时,她会穿着汉服,有一次,她去日本时,当地人把她的服装误认为韩国传统服装。

“在我看来,汉服应该发展成为一种可以在全世界范围内流通的中国文化象征。”

《中国日报》当期其他报道

《From public servant to singer to man of the cloth》

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201803/03/WS5a99f84aa3106e7dcc13f494.html

《The most traditional not always the most practical》

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201803/03/WS5a99f595a3106e7dcc13f48c.html

欢迎大家留言!

作者:Xing Wen | China Daily 

翻译:汉家儿女薇玉萌

首发:中国日报英文版

链接:

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201803/03/WS5a99f385a3106e7dcc13f482_1.html

转载请注明作者、出处和链接。


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